1. Name：Changes in the Dimensions of Lignocellulose Nanofibrils with Different Lignin Contents by Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Authors：Jae-Hyuk Jang, Noriko Hayashi, Song-Yi Han , Chan-Woo Park 1, Fauzi Febrianto ,
Seung-Hwan Lee and Nam-Hun Kim
Abstract：Changes in the dimensions of lignocellulose nanofibrils (LCNFs) with dierent lignincontents from betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) by enzymatic hydrolysis using endoglucanase(EG) were investigated. Lignin contents were adjusted from 3% to 27% by NaClO2/acetic acidtreatment, and LCNFs were prepared using a wet disk-mill (WDM). The dimensions of the LCNFssignificantly decreased with decreasing lignin content and increasing EG addition. With increasingEG content, the average diameter of the LCNFs significantly decreased, even though they containedparts of hemicellulose and lignin. The crystal structure showed the typical cellulose I structure in allsamples, but the intensity of the diraction peak slightly changed depending on the lignin and EGcontents. The crystallinity index (CrI) values of the LCNFs increased a maximum of 23.8% (LCNF-L27)under increasing EG addition, regardless of the lignin content. With the EG addition of three timesthe LCNF amount, LCNF-L3 showed the highest CrI value (59.1%). By controlling the compositionand structure of LCNFs, it is expected that the wide range of properties of these materials can extendthe property range available for existing materials.
2. Name: Interaction of fibrinogen–magnetic nanoparticle bioconjugates with integrin reconstituted into artificial membranes
Authors：Ulrike Martens, Una Janke, Sophie Möller, Delphine Talbot, Ali Abou-Hassan and Mihaela Delcea
Abstract：Magnetic nanoparticles have a broad spectrum of biomedical applications including cell separation, diagnosticsand therapy. One key issue is little explored: how do the engineered nanoparticles interact withblood components after injection? The formation of bioconjugates in the bloodstream and subsequentreactions are potentially toxic due to the ability to induce an immune response. The understanding of theunderlying processes is of major relevance to design not only efficient, but also safe nanoparticles for e.g.targeted drug delivery applications. In this study, we report on maghemite nanoparticles functionalizedwith citrate-, dextran- and polyethylene glycol coatings and their interaction with the clotting proteinfibrinogen. Further, we investigate using biophysical tools (e.g. dynamic light scattering, circular dichroismspectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance) the interaction of the magnetic nanoparticles–fibrinogenbioconjugates with artificial cell membranes as a model system for blood platelets. We found that fibrinogencorona formation provides colloidal stability to maghemite nanoparticles. In addition, bioconjugatesof fibrinogen with dextran- and citrate-coated NPs interact with integrin-containing lipid bilayer,especially upon treatment with divalent ions, whereas PEG-coating reveals minor interaction. Our study atthe interface of protein-conjugated nanoparticles and artificial cell membranes is essential for engineeringsafe nanoparticles for drug delivery applications.
3. Name：Mimicking the Nitric Oxide‐Releasing and Glycocalyx Functions of Endothelium on Vascular Stent Surfaces
Authors：Nan Lyu, Zeyu Du, Hua Qiu, Peng Gao, Qin Yao, Kaiqin Xiong, Qiufen Tu, Xiangyang Li, Binghai Chen, Miao Wang, Guoqing Pan, Nan Huang, and Zhilu Yang
Abstract：Endothelium can secrete vasoactive mediators and produce specificextracellular matrix, which contribute jointly to the thromboresistance andregulation of vascular cell behaviors. From a bionic point of view, introducingendothelium-like functions onto cardiovascular stents represents the mosteffective means to improve hemocompatibility and reduce late stentrestenosis. However, current surface strategies for vascular stents still havelimitations, like the lack of multifunctionality, especially the monotony inendothelial-mimic functions. Herein, a layer-by-layer grafting strategy tocreate endothelium-like dual-functional surface on cardiovascular scaffolds isreported. Typically, a nitric oxide (NO, vasoactive mediator)-generatingcompound and an endothelial polysaccharide matrix molecule hyaluronan(HA) are sequentially immobilized on allylamine-plasma-deposited stentsthrough aqueous amidation. In this case, the stents could be well-engineeredwith dual endothelial functions capable of remote and close-range regulationof the vascular microenvironment. The synergy of NO and endothelialglycocalyx molecules leads to efficient antithrombosis, smooth muscle cell(SMC) inhibition, and perfect endothelial cell (EC)-compatibility of the stentsin vitro. Moreover, the dual-functional stents show efficientantithrombogenesis ex vivo, rapid endothelialization, and long-termprevention of restenosis in vivo. Therefore, this study will provide newsolutions for not only multicomponent surface functionalization but also thebioengineering of endothelium-mimic vascular scaffolds with improvedclinical outcomes.
4. Name：Immobilization of Arrestin-3 on different biosensor platforms for evaluating GPCR binding
Authors：Saziye Yorulmaz Avsar, Larisa E. Kapinos, Cora-Ann Schoenenberger, Gebhard F.X. Schertler, Jonas Mühlec, Benoit Meger, Roderick Y.H. Lim, Martin Ostermeier, Elena Lesca, and Corneli G. Palivan
Journal：Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Abstract：G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large and ubiquitous family of membrane receptors of great pharmacologicalinterest. Cell-based assays are the primary tool for assessing GPCR interactions and activation but assay design and intrinsiccomplexity limit their application. Biosensor-based assays that directly and specifically report GPCR-protein binding (e.g.arrestin or G protein) could provide a good alternative. We present an approach based on the stable immobilization ofdifferent arrestin-3 proteins (wild type, and two mutants, mutant X (arrestin-3 I386A) and mutant Y (arrestin-3 R393E), viahistidine tags on NTA (Ni2+) coated sensors in a defined orientation. Using biolayer interferometry (BLI), surface plasmonresonance (SPR), and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), we were able to follow the interaction betweenthe different arrestin-3 proteins and a representative GPCR, jumping spider rhodopsin-1 (JSR1), in a label-free manner inreal-time. The interactions were quantified as binding affinity, association and dissociation rate constants. The combinationof surface-based biosensing methods indicated that JSR1 showed the strongest binding to arrestin mutant Y. Taken together,this work introduces direct label-free, biosensor-based screening approaches that can be easily adapted for testinginteractions of proteins and other compounds with different GPCRs.
5. Name：Effect of low-methoxy pectin on interfacial and emulsion stabilizing properties of heated whey protein isolate (WPI) aggregates
Authors：Wahyu Wijaya, Sevde Turan, Arima Diah Setiowati, Koen, Dewettinck, Ashok R. Patel, Paul Van der Meeren
Abstract：In this study, we have investigated the interfacial and emulsion stabilizing properties of heat-induced whey protein isolate (WPI) aggregates prepared in the presence or absence of low-methoxy pectin (LMP). Sub-micron complex particles were formed by heating of oppositely charged WPI and LMP at different WPI:LMP mass ratios. The Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) technique was used to better understand the adsorption properties of these biopolymeric particles at a model hydrophobic surface. Clear correlations were observed between the interfacial properties of WPI and WPI:LMP aggregates and the resulting emulsion characteristics. Compared to WPI aggregates (which led to emulsions containing larger flocculated droplets), the heated complexes (formed at a higher ratio of LMP to WPI) were highly efficient as Pickering stabilizers leading to emulsions with smaller droplets (5.5-6.8 μm). Cryo-SEM analysis clearly revealed the manipulation of the emulsions’ interfacial microstructure due to the adsorption of a WPI:LMP inter-polymeric film onto the surface of the droplets. The effectiveness of the colloidal particles in stabilizing emulsions depended largely on the formation of a sufficiently ‘dense layer’ of particles at the oil-water interface where these properties were controlled by the composition of WPI and LMP at the oil droplet surface. Moreover, the emulsion physical stability was greatly influenced by the formation of an inter-connected film at the oil droplet interface, whereby these viscoelastic films increased the steric hindrance against coalescence of emulsion droplets. This work provides the mechanism of emulsion stabilization by WPI particles formed by heating in the absence or presence of pectin.
6. Name：In-situ and real-time probing cellulase biosensor formation and its interaction with lignosulfonate in varied media
Authors：Peipei Wang, Tian Liu, Yena Liu,Jing Tian, Xinyu Zhang, Jiaqi Guo,a, Yongcan Jin, Huining Xiao, and Junlong Song
Abstract：It is a challenge to interpret the signals obtained by Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) accompanied with in the significant changes of the density and/or refractivity of media. The work presented herein focuses on demonstrating a universal in-situ and real-time monitoring methodology for ultrathin film formation on gold chips in varied media. Biomimetic model cellulase/enzyme film was immobilized in-situ on gold surface of sensors, followed by revealing its interaction with lignosulphonate in the media changed from ethanol-based to aqueous ones. Combining the techniques of Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and Multi-parametric Surface Plasmon Resonance (MP-SPR) along with respective software and models enabled us to precisely characterize the thickness, viscous and shear elastic moduli, and the coupled solvent for individual layer formed over the entire process, which are unachievable with conventional methods. The methodology provides real-time monitoring of filming process and offers us an in-situ qualify control approach to the biomimetic model films formed on different substrates including gold chip.
7. Name: Incorporation of FGF-2 into Pharmaceutical Grade Fucoidan/Chitosan Polyelectrolyte Multilayers
Authors：Natalie L. Benbow , Samuel Karpiniec , Marta Krasowska , and David A. Beattie
Abstract：Biopolymer polyelectrolyte multilayers are a commonly studied soft matter system forwound healing applications due to the biocompatibility and beneficial properties of naturallyoccurring polyelectrolytes. In this work, a popular biopolymer, chitosan, was combined with thelesser known polysaccharide, fucoidan, to create a multilayer film capable of sequestering growthfactor for later release. Fucoidan has been shown to act as a heparin-mimic due to similarities in thestructure of the two molecules, however, the binding of fibroblast growth factor-2 to fucoidan hasnot been demonstrated in a multilayer system. This study assesses the ability of fucoidan to bindfibroblast growth factor-2 within a fucoidan/chitosan polyelectrolyte multilayer structure usingattenuated total internal reflectance infrared spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance withdissipation monitoring. The fibroblast growth factor-2 was sequestered into the polyelectrolytemultilayer as a cationic layer in the uppermost layers of the film structure. In addition, the diffusionof fibroblast growth factor-2 into the multilayer has been assessed.
8. Name：Di-carboxylic acid cellulose nanofibril (DCA-CNF) as an additive in water-based drilling fluids (WBMs) applied to shale formations
Authors：Yurany Villada, María Celeste Iglesias, María Laura Olivares, Natalia Casis, Junyong Zhu, María Soledad Peresin & Diana Estenoz
Abstract：This work proposes the application of di-carboxylic acid cellulose nanofibril (DCA-CNF) obtained through maleic acid hydrolysis as an additive in water-based drilling fluids (WBMs). Specifically, the use of DCA-CNF as a replacement of xanthan gum (XGD) in the WBM formulations was evaluated. The effect of DCA-CNF on the main functional properties of WBMs and their performance was evaluated and compared with that corresponding to XGD. To this end, interactions between DCA-CNF and bentonite (BT), as well as between DCA-CNF and polyanionic cellulose (PAC), were studied using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) technique. The rheological analyses showed a shear-thinning behavior of WBMs containing XGD similar to WBMs with DCA-CNF, while filtration properties and thermal stability improved by the presence of DCA-CNF. Results obtained by QCM-D indicated higher interaction between PAC and DCA-CNFs when compared to BT and DCA-CNF. The Sisko model was implemented to simulate the relationship between viscosity and shear rate. WBM for Argentina shale containing the double concentration of DCA-CNF exhibited similar rheological properties to the base fluid.
9. Name：Nanofiltration fouling behaviors with different membrane materials induced by residual natural organics left over after ultrafiltration unit encountered with divalent cations
Authors：Yuefei Song , Xifan Li, Yueke Sun, Yongxin Wang, Xueshuang Bai, Xiaozhuan Zhang,
Nan Zhang, Kai Jiang
Journal：Chemical Engineering Journal
Abstract：It is of practical significance to explore the fouling mechanism of nanofiltration membrane caused by residualnatural organics left over after ultrafiltration unit. This paper systematically investigates nanofiltration membranefouling behaviors induced by preserved humic acid components after ultrafiltration filtration (PHACUF) inthe existence of Mg2+/Ca2+ ion from micro- and macro-level analyses. Those similarities and disparities in theroles of polyethersulfone or polyamide active layer to these issues were also studied comparatively. The resultsshowed that there existed unneglectable standard blocking for polyethersulfone membrane when permeatingbare PHACUF solution. However, with the addition of divalent cations, the main fouling mechanism changed tointermediate blocking. Fewer Mg2+ ions could fully link with the carboxylic groups of PHACUF molecules,leading to larger and more dense flocs by the “bridging” effect and the aggravated nanofiltration membranefouling with more compact layer structure, especially for more hydrophobic polyethersulfone membrane. Itcould be inferred that in Mg2+/Ca2+ environment, actually, PHACUF-caused nanofiltration membrane foulingwas mainly formed and constituted by hydrophobic acids and neutral fractions with much higher both hydrophobicityand content percentage, whether for the membrane-foulant interaction in the early stage or thefoulant-foulant interaction in subsequent permeation stage.
10. Name：Interfacial rheology, emulsifying property and emulsion stability of glyceryl monooleate-modified corn fiber gum
Authors：Yue Wei, Yanping Xie, Zhixiang Cai, Yalong Guo, Hongbin Zhang
Abstract：The present work aims to develop novel glyceryl monooleate (GMO)–modified corn fiber gum (CFG) emulsifiers(GMO–CFG) and investigate the role of the interfacial properties on emulsion stability. GMO–CFG with differentdegrees of substitution (DS) were prepared, and their interfacial rheology and emulsification were appraised forpotential applications in stabilizing oil/water emulsions. Various oil/water interfacial properties (i.e., adsorptionkinetics, viscoelasticity, and adsorbed amount) were determined as a function of DS by using interfacial shearrheology and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring techniques. Hydrophobically modifiedCFG provides an increased capacity to produce fine droplets and stable emulsions. Esterification and its degreeexert non-negligible effects on the critical micelle concentration, interfacial tension, interfacial adsorbedamount, and viscoelasticity of the interfacial layer. The rheological properties of the interfacial layers play animportant role in macroscopic emulsion stability.
11. Name：Adsorption of Mixtures of a Pegylated Lipid with Anionic and Zwitterionic Surfactants at Solid/Liquid
Authors：Sara Llamas , Eduardo Guzmán, Francisco Ortega and Ramón G. Rubio
Journal：Colloids and Interfaces
Abstract：This work explores the association of a pegylated lipid (DSPE-PEG) with dierent anionicand zwitterionic surfactants (pseudo-binary and pseudo-ternary polymer+ surfactant mixtures), andthe adsorption of the polymer + surfactant aggregates onto negatively charged surfaces, with a surfacecharge density similar to that existing on the damaged hair epicuticle. Dynamic light scattering andzeta potential measurements shows that, in solution, the polymer surfactant association results froman intricate balance between electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which leads to the formationof at least two dierent types of micellar-like polymer surfactant aggregates. The structure andphysicochemical properties of such aggregates were found strongly dependent on the specific natureand concentration of the surfactant. The adsorption of the polymer + surfactant aggregates ontonegatively charged surface was studied using a set of surface-sensitive techniques (quartz crystalmicrobalance with dissipation monitoring, ellipsometry and Atomic Force Microscopy), which allowsobtaining information about the adsorbed amount, the water content of the layers and the topographyof the obtained films. Ion-dipole interactions between the negative charges of the surface and theoxyethylene groups of the polymer + surfactant aggregates appear as the main driving force ofthe deposition process. This is strongly dependent on the surfactant nature and its concentration,with the impact of the latter on the adsorption being especially critical when anionic surfactant areincorporated within the aggregates. This study opens important perspectives for modulating thedeposition of a poorly interacting polymer onto negatively charged surfaces, which can impact in thefabrication on dierent aspects with technological and industrial interest.
12. Name: PLGA Membranes Functionalized with Gelatin through Biomimetic Mussel-Inspired Strategy
Authors：Irene Carmagnola, Valeria Chiono , Gerardina Ruocco, Annachiara Scalzone , Piergiorgio Gentile , Paola Taddei and Gianluca Ciardelli
Abstract：Electrospun membranes have been widely used as scaolds for soft tissue engineeringdue to their extracellular matrix-like structure. A mussel-inspired coating approach based on3,4-dihydroxy-DL-phenylalanine (DOPA) polymerization was proposed to graft gelatin (G) ontopoly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) electrospun membranes. PolyDOPA coating allowed graftingof gelatin to PLGA fibers without aecting their bulk characteristics, such as molecular weight andthermal properties. PLGA electrospun membranes were dipped in a DOPA solution (2 mg/mL,Tris/HCl 10 mM, pH 8.5) for 7 h and then incubated in G solution (2 mg/mL, Tris/HCl 10 mM, pH 8.5)for 16 h. PLGA fibers had an average diameter of 1.37 0.23 m. Quartz crystal microbalancewith dissipation technique (QCM-D) analysis was performed to monitor DOPA polymerizationover time: after 7 h the amount of deposited polyDOPA was 71 ng/cm2. After polyDOPA surfacefunctionalization, which was, also revealed by Raman spectroscopy, PLGA membranes maintainedtheir fibrous morphology, however the fiber size and junction number increased. Successfulfunctionalization with G was demonstrated by FTIR-ATR spectra, which showed the presence of Gadsorption bands at 1653 cm1 (Amide I) and 1544 cm1 (Amide II) after G grafting, and by the KaiserTest, which revealed a higher amount of amino groups for G functionalized membranes. Finally,the biocompatibility of the developed substrates and their ability to induce cell growth was assessedusing Neonatal Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts.
13. Name：Effects of Surface Chemistry and Topology on the Kinesin-Driven Motility of Microtubule Shuttles
Authors：Haneen Martinez, Nicholas J. D. Martinez, Jimin Guo, Victoria R. Lujan, Jessica Depoy, Michael T. Brumbach, C. Jeffrey Brinker, and George D. Bachand
Journal：ACS Applied Bio Materials
Abstract：Nanoscale transport using the kinesin−microtubulesystem has been successfully used in applications ranging from selfassembly,to biosensing, to biocomputation. Realization of suchapplications necessitates robust microtubule motility particularly inthe presence of complex sample matrices that can affect the interactionsof the motors with the surface and the transport function. In the presentwork, we explored how the chemical nature and nanoscale topology ofvarious surfaces affected kinesin−microtubule transport. Specifically, wecharacterized microtubule motility on three distinct interfaces: (i)surfaces modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) displayingthree different terminal groups, (ii) SAM-modified surfaces withadsorbed fetal bovine serum (FBS) proteins, and (iii) surfaces wherethe FBS layer was silicified to preserve an underlying surface topology. The composition and topology of each surface was confirmedwith a number of techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle, atomic force microscopy(AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The majority of surfaces, with the exception of those with the hydrophobic SAM,supported gliding motility consistent with the glass control. Differences in the displacement, velocity, and trajectory of the leading tipof the microtubule were observed in relation to the specific surface chemistry and, to a lesser extent, the nanoscale topology of thedifferent substrates. Overall, this work broadens our understanding of how surface functionality and topology affect kinesin-basedtransport and provides valuable insights regarding future development of biosensing and probing applications that rely onbiomolecular transport.
14. Name：Impact of degree of substitution of cationic xylan on strength of cellulose fiber networks along with medium conductivity
Authors：Xiaoyan Wang , Fanghui Hu , Xiaomin Lu , Qingcheng Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Jing Tian, Jiaqi Guo, Junlong Song, Yongcan Jin, Huining Xiao
Journal：Industrial Crops & Products
Abstract：Hemicelluloses have been considered as an efficient component to improve the bonding or strength of fibernetworks. The degree of substitution (DS) of cationic hemicelluloses and the ionic strength of applied mediumare therefore two most important and crucial factors influencing its performance in wet-end of papermaking.Therein, the impact of DS of cationic xylan (CX) derived from corncob on the strength of fiber networks wassystematically explored in aqueous media with various ionic strengths. Initially, a series of CXs with DS rangingfrom 0.051 to 0.113 were synthesized via a microwave-assisted method. The resulting CXs were applied as wetendadditives in the media with conductivity of 500, 2500, and 5000 μs/cm, representing the low, moderate, andhigh level of electrolytes in closed white water circulation, respectively. Comparing to the control, all CXsimproved the tensile and tear strength of paper significantly, while not in burst strength. The medium conductivityhad an adverse impact on the performance of CXs, and the optimum DS of CXs was down shifted toabout 0.05 ~ 0.06. To mimic the adsorption of CXs on fiber surface, the adsorption behavior of CXs on negativelycharged gold sensor was monitored by SPR in an attempt to reveal the mechanism. It was found that CXs withlow DS had a larger adsorption capacity, thicker and softer adlayer, which are beneficial to fiber bonding andpaper strength. This study is meaningful to the applications of xylan into value-added products and to thevalorization of agricultural and forestry wastes.
15. Name：Biomimetic Nanomaterial Strategies for Virus Targeting: Antiviral Therapies and Vaccines
Authors：Joshua A. Jackman, Bo Kyeong Yoon, Lei Ouyang, Nan Wang, Abdul Rahim Ferhan, Jaeyun Kim, Tetsuro Majima, and Nam-Joon Cho
Journal：Advanced Functional Materials
Abstract：The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic highlights theimportance of developing effective virus targeting strategies to treat andprevent viral infections. Since virus particles are nanoscale entities, nanomaterialdesign strategies are ideally suited to create advanced materials thatcan interact with and mimic virus particles. In this progress report, the latestadvances in biomimetic nanomaterials are critically discussed for combatingviral infections, including in the areas of nanomaterial-enhanced viral replicationinhibitors, biomimetic virus particle capture schemes, and nanoparticlevaccines. Particular focus is placed on nanomaterial design concepts andmaterial innovations that can be readily developed to thwart future viralthreats. Pertinent nanomaterial examples from the COVID-19 situation arealso covered along with discussion of human clinical trial efforts underwaythat might lead to next-generation antiviral therapies and vaccines.